Daily Archives: October 13, 2009

Proposition #1: A Sectarian Doctrine Cannot be a “Catholic Principle”

Acroamaticus, previously mentioned on this blog, has begun to post on his “Lutheran Catholicity” blog. The first post takes up the challenge for him to try to define “catholicity” apart from communion with the bishop of Rome. He has outlined three “principles” that for him are a sine qua non of catholicity. I don’t quibble with his identification of these principles – they are among those that I would specify as Catholic “principles” also. [Although I don’t really like talking this “principles” language, even though my favourite theologian wrote a book along these lines. I could recommend that to anyone wishing to read more on this subject.]

But I do need to quible with his definition of at least one of these “principles”, namely, the “Gospel Principle”.

Acroamaticus writes:

2. The Gospel Principal. To be catholic a statement or practise must be consonant with the Gospel, defined in the narrow sense, i.e. that we are freely justified before God for Christ’s sake when we believe that we are recieved into God’s favour and our sins forgiven on account of Christ, who by his death made satisfaction for our sins. This faith God imputes to us as righteousness (Romans chs. 3 & 4) [see Augsburg Confession, Art IV). Any statement or practise that contradicts God’s Gospel can self-evidently not be catholic.

But how can we make such a “narrow definition” of any part of the faith, let alone “the Gospel”, a part of a definition of what it means to be “catholic”? To give St Vincent of Lerins his due, at least he got the “always” and “everywhere” part right. Something cannot really claim to be “catholic” unless it can be demonstrated to be held by the whole Church rather than a “narrow” group of theologians or believers. In fact, the “narrow” sense in which Acroamaticus describes “the Gospel” is quite open to being called a “sectarian” principle, rather than a “catholic” principle.

My personal conviction is that there is no sense in which one can speak of being “catholic” apart from “the Catholic Church”. Now, we have been through all this before with Past Elder (are you still lurking there in the shadows, ol’ boy?), but let me say it again: the faith only has meaning, is only catholic, within the Communion of the Church. All these assertions that Acroamaticus makes (“To be catholic a statement or practise must be …”) – in whose book? under whose authority? As I said, I am not arguing with the fact that the Scriptures, the Gospel and the Church in her historical aspect are all central to what it means to be “catholic”. But I can assert this because the Church says so, not because I say so. By definition, I cannot, on my own, declare what it means to be “catholic”. That is something that can only be done by the community which IS “catholic”.

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St Damien of Molokai

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Ever since seeing the David Wenham film “Molokai”, I have had a real soft spot for this saint, and am glad to see he made it to canonisation recently. There is an excellent article on St Damien on the Catholic World Report site: The Apostle to the Lepers.

There is an interesting comment in this article about the Catholic Encyclopedia (1911) entry on Fr Damien:

Damien’s superiors, however, could not picture their difficult charge as a saint. (Compare the coolness of the original Catholic Encyclopedia’s entry on Damien composed by one of them with the article on Molokai written by Joseph Dutton.) The flourishing Sacred Hearts Fathers did little to promote his canonization cause until 1938, when his generation of superiors was dead.

Wondering what they meant, I went to the Catholic Encyclopedia on the Web, which is, I believe, the original edition, and found the article in question:

Missionary priest, born at Tremeloo, Belgium, 3 January 1840; died at Molokai, Hawaii, 15 April 1889.

His father, a small farmer, sent him to a college at Braine-le-Comte, to prepare for a commercial profession; but as a result of a mission given by the Redemptorists in 1858, Joseph decided to become a religious. He entered the novitiate of the Fathers of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary at Louvain, and took in religion the name of Damien. He was admitted to the religious profession, 7 Oct. 1860. Three years later, though still in minor orders, he was sent to the mission of the Hawaiian Islands, where he arrived, 19 March, 1864. Ordained priest at Honolulu 24 May of the same year, he was later given charge of various districts on the island of Hawaii, and, animated with a burning zeal, his robust constitution allowed him to give full play to the impulses of his heart. He was not only the missionary of the natives, but also constructed several chapels with his own hands, both in Hawaii and in Molokai.

On the latter island there had grown up a leper settlement where the Government kept segregated all persons afflicted with the loathsome disease. The board of health supplied the unfortunates with food and clothing, but was unable in the beginning to provide them with either resident physicians or nurses. On 10 May, 1873, Father Damien, at his own request and with the sanction of his bishop, arrived at the settlement as its resident priest. There were then 600 lepers. “As long as the lepers can care for themselves”, wrote the superintendent of the board of health to Bishop Maigret, “they are comparatively comfortable, but as soon as the dreadful disease renders them helpless, it would seem that even demons themselves would pity their condition and hasten their death.” For a long time, however, Father Damien was the only one to bring them the succour they so greatly needed. He not only administered the consolations of religion, but also rendered them such little medical service and bodily comforts as were within his power. He dressed their ulcers, helped them erect their cottages, and went so far as to dig their graves and make their coffins. After twelve years of this heroic service he discovered in himself the first symptoms of the disease. This was in 1885. He nevertheless continued his charitable ministrations, being assisted at this period by two other priests and two lay brothers. On 28 March, 1889, Father Damien became helpless and passed away shortly after, closing his fifteenth year in the service of the lepers.

Certain utterances concerning his morality called forth Robert Louis Stevenson’s well-known philippic against the Rev. Dr. Hyde, wherein the memory of the Apostle of the Lepers is brilliantly vindicated. In addition a correspondence in the “Pacific Commercial Advertiser”, 20 June, 1905, completely removes from the character of Father Damien every vestige of suspicion, proving beyond a doubt that Dr. Hyde’s insinuations rested merely on misunderstandings.

Hmm. Definitely “cool”. How about the bit about “his robust constitution allowed him to give full play to the impulses of his heart“!? or the description of the lepers as “persons afflicted with the loathsome disease”; or the comment that Fr Damien “went so far as to dig their graves and make their coffins”!

In the same edition we find the “article on Molokai written by Joseph Dutton”. There we read:

Father Damien and the Franciscan Sisters
It is the name of Father Damien, however, that has made Molokai known throughout the whole world. He came to the Molokai Settlement to remain, 11 May, 1873. Good order in the settlement was somewhat precarious. Damien’s determined character proved to be of great value. Besides his priestly offices, there was opportunity for his efforts at every turn. With a hungry zeal for work, he accomplished many things for the good of the place; he helped the authorities, and brought about a good spirit among the people. Ten years later (1883) the Franciscan Sisters came to Honolulu from Syracuse, N.Y., having been engaged by the Hawaiian Government. They expected coming to the settlement at once, but the authorities concluded that conditions there were unsuitable, that better order must be secured, and some improvements made in buildings, etc. So the sisters remained at Kakaako Branch Hospital, near Honolulu, for about six years, a certain number of newly gathered lepers being retained there. The hospital was given up when the sisters came to Molokai. At the settlement in 1883 conditions would indeed have been intolerable for the sisters, and the same was true in 1886 when the writer joined Father Damien; but matters were being gradually improved. At last three sisters came to Kalaupapa 15 Nov., 1888. Bishop Home for girls and women had been built. Two more sisters came 6 May, 1880, Robert Louis Stevenson coming by the same boat for a visit. Father Damien died 15 April, 1889. His death, after such a life, arrested the world’s attention. A spontaneous outburst of applause from everywhere at once followed. The sixteen years of labour on Molokai made a record that seemed unique to the world at large. The world knew very little about lepers, and Father Damien’s life came as a startling revelation of heroic self-sacrifice. He is acknowledged the Apostle of the lepers, and whatever others may do in the same field will help to perpetuate his fame and honour. A monument was offered by the people of England, and accepted by the Hawaiian Board of Health. It was given a place at Kalaupapa, not far from the steamer landing, near the public road now called “Damien Road”, adjoining the sisters’ place at Bishop Home. The monument in itself is interesting, being an antique cross, fashioned and adapted from stone cutting of about the sixth century, such as was found in the ruins of the Seven Churches of Clonmacnoise on the river Shannon, Ireland. It was transferred by the Board of Health to the Catholic Mission on 11 Sept., 1893, the Bishop coming to receive and bless it. Two miles away, at the other end of the Damien Road, in Kalawao, the body of Father Damien lies, close by the church, where the Pandanus tree stood that sheltered him on his arrival in 1873. Over this grave stands a simple cross with the inscription on one side, “Father Damien”, on the other, “Damien Deveuster”. The strong wooden coffin was placed in an excavation, and imbedded in a solid block of concrete. Since Father Damien’s time, two priests have usually been on duty at the settlement, one at Kalawao, the other at Kalaupapa. Father Pamphile Deveuster, Damien’s brother, was here in 1895-7; he returned to Belgium and died there 29 July, 1909.

Yes. “Getting warm”, as they say.

If you haven’t seen the film, get it out and watch it. It might be hagiography, but it is good hagiography and very moving. David Wenham plays Damien perfectly.

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