Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I issues Lenten Encyclical defending dialogue and ecumenism

I know from several of our Orthodox readers that the ecumenical movement has some way to go in completely convincing the Orthodox hoi poloi of their leaders enthusiasm for ecumenism. Most Russians, for eg, are dead against any talk of unity with Western Christendom, papal or otherwise. The fact that Patriarch Kirill was in charge of the “ecumenical desk” in Moscow – a post now held by the excellent Archbishop Hilarion – does not excite them at all. And there are a good number of Greeks who are not too keen on the Ecumenical Patriarch’s for enthusiasm for links with Church and Pope of Rome (a term I use in its most specific sense) – see here for news of a “document on ‘heresy of ecumenism'”, a manifesto published “a group of Orthodox clergy in Greece, led by three senior archbishops, …pledging to resist all ecumenical ties with Roman Catholics and Protestants.”

The topic chosen by the Ecumenical Patriach, Bartholemew I, for his Lenten Encyclical – published on “the Sunday of Orthodoxy” no less – could therefore not have been more pointed or controversial. Nevertheless, his empassioned plea for Orthodox Ecumenism is to be applauded and welcomed by all non-Orthodox. Here – at some length – I quote from the Letter:

With a sense of duty and responsibility, despite its hurdles and problems, as the First-Throne Church of Orthodoxy, the Ecumenical Patriarchate cares about protecting and establishing the unity of the Orthodox Church, in order that with one voice and in one heart we may confess the Orthodox faith of our Fathers in every age and even in our times. For, Orthodoxy is not a museum treasure that must be preserved; it is a breath of life that must be transmitted and invigorate all people. Orthodoxy is always contemporary, so long as we promote it with humility and interpret it in light of the existential quests and needs of humanity in each historical period and cultural circumstance.

To this purpose, Orthodoxy must be in constant dialogue with the world. The Orthodox Church does not fear dialogue because truth is not afraid of dialogue. On the contrary, if Orthodoxy is enclosed within itself and not in dialogue with those outside, it will both fail in its mission and no longer be the “catholic” and “ecumenical” Church. Instead, it will become an introverted and self-contained group, a “ghetto” on the margins of history. This is why the great Fathers of the Church never feared dialogue with the spiritual culture of their age – indeed even with the pagan idolaters and philosophers of their world – thereby influencing and transforming the civilization of their time and offering us a truly ecumenical Church.

Today, Orthodoxy is called to continue this dialogue with the outside world in order to provide a witness and the life-giving breath of its faith. However, this dialogue cannot reach the outside world unless it first passes through all those that bear the Christian name. Thus, we must first converse as Christians among ourselves in order to resolve our differences, in order that our witness to the outside world may be credible. Our endeavors for the union of all Christians is the will and command of our Lord, who before His Passion prayed to His Father “that all [namely, His disciples] may be one, so that the world may believe that You sent me.” (John 17.21) It is not possible for the Lord to agonize over the unity of His disciples and for us to remain indifferent about the unity of all Christians. This would constitute criminal betrayal and transgression of His divine commandment.

It is precisely for these reasons that, with the mutual agreement and participation of all local Orthodox Churches, the Ecumenical Patriarchate has for many decades conducted official Panorthodox theological dialogues with the larger Christian Churches and Confessions. The aim of these dialogues is, in a spirit of love, to discuss whatever divides Christians both in terms of faith as well as in terms of the organization and life of the Church.

These dialogues, together with every effort for peaceful and fraternal relations of the Orthodox Church with other Christians, are unfortunately challenged today in an unacceptably fanatical way – at least by the standards of a genuinely Orthodox ethos – by certain circles that exclusively claim for themselves the title of zealot and defender of Orthodoxy. As if all the Patriarchs and Sacred Synods of the Orthodox Churches throughout the world, who unanimously decided on and continue to support these dialogues, were not Orthodox. Yet, these opponents of every effort for the restoration of unity among Christians raise themselves above Episcopal Synods of the Church to the dangerous point of creating schisms within the Church.

In their polemical argumentation, these critics of the restoration of unity among Christians do not even hesitate to distort reality in order to deceive and arouse the faithful. Thus, they are silent about the fact that theological dialogues are conducted by unanimous decision of all Orthodox Churches, instead attacking the Ecumenical Patriarchate alone. They disseminate false rumors that union between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches is imminent, while they know well that the differences discussed in these theological dialogues remain numerous and require lengthy debate; moreover, union is not decided by theological commissions but by Church Synods. They assert that the Pope will supposedly subjugate the Orthodox, because they latter submit to dialogue with the Roman Catholics! They condemn those who conduct these dialogues as allegedly “heretics” and “traitors” of Orthodoxy, purely and simply because they converse with non-Orthodox, with whom they share the treasure and truth of our Orthodox faith. They speak condescendingly of every effort for reconciliation among divided Christians and restoration of their unity as purportedly being “the pan-heresy of ecumenism” without providing the slightest evidence that, in its contacts with non-Orthodox, the Orthodox Church has abandoned or denied the doctrines of the Ecumenical Councils and of the Church Fathers.

Beloved children in the Lord, Orthodoxy has no need of either fanaticism or bigotry to protect itself. Whoever believes that Orthodoxy has the truth does not fear dialogue, because truth has never been endangered by dialogue. By contrast, when in our day all people strive to resolve their differences through dialogue, Orthodoxy cannot proceed with intolerance and extremism. You should have utmost confidence in your Mother Church. For the Mother Church has over the ages preserved and transmitted Orthodoxy even to other nations. And today, the Mother Church is struggling amid difficult circumstances to maintain Orthodoxy vibrant and venerable throughout the world.

It is plain to me that the Patriarch shares the same desires as the Pope, who, in his inaugral homily as Pontiff, stated:

Here I want to add something: both the image of the shepherd and that of the fisherman issue an explicit call to unity. “I have other sheep that are not of this fold; I must lead them too, and they will heed my voice. So there shall be one flock, one shepherd” (Jn 10:16); these are the words of Jesus at the end of his discourse on the Good Shepherd. And the account of the 153 large fish ends with the joyful statement: “although there were so many, the net was not torn” (Jn 21:11). Alas, beloved Lord, with sorrow we must now acknowledge that it has been torn! But no – we must not be sad! Let us rejoice because of your promise, which does not disappoint, and let us do all we can to pursue the path towards the unity you have promised. Let us remember it in our prayer to the Lord, as we plead with him: yes, Lord, remember your promise. Grant that we may be one flock and one shepherd! Do not allow your net to be torn, help us to be servants of unity!

I pray that the Lord would support and bless the efforts of these two great leaders of world Christendom and answer their prayers for the unity of all Christians, both within and without their folds.

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3 responses to “Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I issues Lenten Encyclical defending dialogue and ecumenism

  1. Christine

    Patriarch Bartholomew was featured on a story on 60 Minutes last year. The humility and forbearance of this humble Christian leader under the yoke of Islam is amazing. He truly knows what it is to carry the cross.

    May the Lord bless him and his flock.

    Christine

  2. Vjacheslav

    Hi David, thanks for the link. This is a good and timely address from Bartholomew but a lot of questions remain:

    —————- quote
    Orthodox Church does not fear dialogue because truth is not afraid of dialogue. On the contrary, if Orthodoxy is enclosed within itself and not in dialogue with those outside, it will both fail in its mission and no longer be the “catholic” and “ecumenical” Church.
    quote————-

    Truly, Orthodox Church should not fear dialogue being a True Church. But then any such dialogue should start from the fact that any other party to such dialogue represents an untrue church.

    For some reason Bartholomew every time fails to call everybody’s attention to this fact. That’s why his dialogue attempts provoke such a harsh reaction among the Orthodox clergy and ordinary believers

    —————— quote
    They [anti-ecumenists] speak condescendingly of every effort for reconciliation among divided Christians and restoration of their unity as purportedly being “the pan-heresy of ecumenism” without providing the slightest evidence that, in its contacts with non-Orthodox, the Orthodox Church has abandoned or denied the doctrines of the Ecumenical Councils and of the Church Fathers.
    quote ———————

    On the opposite – anti-ecumenists have a lot of proof for all kinds of canonical and dogmatic violations. Besides anti-ecumenists do not believe that Bartholomew is the only one to blame: indeed many of Orthodox episcopate participate in dubious actions – that is really a pain point.

    If it was not for anti-canonical actions by Bartholomew and other episcopate members we would have far less reasons for internal schisms among the Orthodox.

    Like in 1920s when Grigorian calendar was adopted by Constantinople. It was a painful strike for Greek church, many people have left the Church to start a schizm then. It is totally the guilt of Dorotheus of Constantinople, the one who started that notorious calendar reform.

    Thank God Russian Church is still on Julian calendar and thank God our episcopate officially condemned (in the year 2000) the very idea that Church can be divided for different branches.

    —————quote
    these opponents of every effort for the restoration of unity among Christians raise themselves above Episcopal Synods of the Church to the dangerous point of creating schisms within the Church.
    quote————

    There have been a lot of similar examples in the history of the Orthodox Church, when orthodox clerics, episcopate and ordinary believers had to separate from heretic “patriarchs”. Athanasius the Great, Gregory of Nasian, monk Maximus in times of monophelyte heresy…

    Nobody wants to see another example of episcopate and clergy putting Bartholomew under anathema, so hopefully, there really will be no unia soon.

  3. Susan Peterson

    Sigh.
    Susan Peterson